(ox a' ze pam)
P : Contraindicated in pregnancy
L : Contraindicated in lactation
|| See TERMINOLOGY & ABBREVIATIONS ||
|Indication(s) & Dosage||
Insomnia associated with anxiety
|Administration||Normal release prep: May be taken with or without food. Admin instructions for modified release prep may vary according to brands, refer to lit.
|Overdosage||Symptoms: Somnolence, confusion, coma, hypoactive reflexes, dyspnoea, hypotension, slurred speech, impaired coordination. Treatment: Supportive.|
|Contraindications||Not for the treatment of psychoses. Pregnancy and lactation.|
|Special Precautions||Cross-sensitivity with other benzodiazepines may occur. Hepatic and renal impairment. Respiratory disease. Debilitated patients, elderly, patients at risk of falls. Withdraw gradually. Porphyria; impaired gag reflex. History of drug abuse or acute alcoholism. May impair ability to drive or operate machinery. CV or cerebrovascular disease, intolerance to transient decreases in BP. Depression or if suicidal risk is present.|
|Adverse Drug Reaction(s)||Syncope (rare), oedema; drowsiness, ataxia, dizziness, vertigo, memory impairment, headache, paradoxical reactions (excitement, stimulation of effect), lethargy, amnesia, euphoria; rash; decreased libido, menstrual irregularities; incontinence; leukopenia, blood dyscrasias; jaundice; dysarthria, tremor, reflex slowing; blurred vision, diplopia; drug dependence.|
|Drug Interactions||Reduced sedative effects with theophylline and other CNS stimulants. Increased incidence of headache with zidovudine. May reduce effects of levodopa.
Potentially Fatal: Additive CNS depression with alcohol and other CNS depressants. Please consult detailed drug interactions before prescribing.
|Food Interaction||Additive CNS depression may occur with valerian, St John's wort, kava kava, gotu kola.|
|Pregnancy Category (FDA)||Category D: There is positive evidence of human foetal risk, but the benefits from use in pregnant women may be acceptable despite the risk (e.g., if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).|
|Storage||Oral: Store at 15-30Â°C (59-86Â°F).|
|Pharmacology||Oxazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine. It enhances the activity of GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, by binding to specific sites in the GABA receptors.
Absorption: Well absorbed from the GI tract; peak plasma levels in about 2 hr (oral).
Distribution: Crosses the placenta and detected in breast milk. Protein-binding: 85-97%.
Metabolism: Hepatic; extensively metabolised to inactive glucuronide.
Excretion: Via urine as unchanged drug and inactive metabolites. Elimination half-life: 3-21 hr.
|ATC Classification||N05BA04 - oxazepam; Belongs to the class of benzodiazepine derivatives anxiolytics. Used in the management of anxiety, agitation or tension.|
Why is Oxazepam prescribed?
Oxazepam is used to relieve anxiety, including anxiety caused by alcohol withdrawal (symptoms that may develop in people who stop drinking alcohol after drinking large amounts for a long time). Oxazepam is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain to allow for relaxation.
How should Oxazepam be used?
Oxazepam comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken three or four times a day and may be taken with or without food. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor to explain any part you do not understand. Take oxazepam exactly as directed.
Oxazepam can be habit-forming. Do not take a larger dose, take it more often, or take it for a longer time than prescribed by your doctor. Oxazepam may not work as well if it is taken for a long time.
Oxazepam may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition.Continue to take oxazepam even if you feel well. Do not skip doses even if you feel that you do not need them. Do not stop taking Oxazepam without talking to your doctor. If you suddenly stop taking oxazepam, you may experience withdrawal symptoms (anxiousness, sleeplessness, and irritability). Your doctor will probably decrease your dose gradually.
Other uses for Oxazepam
Oxazepam is also used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Talk to your doctor about the possible risks of using Oxazepam for your condition.
Oxazepam may be prescribed for other uses. Ask your doctor for more information.
What special precautions to follow?
Before taking oxazepam,
- tell your doctor if you are allergic to oxazepam, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in oxazepam capsules. Ask your doctor for more information.
- tell your doctor what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: antihistamines; digoxin (Lanoxin); levodopa (Larodopa, Sinemet); medication for depression, seizures, Parkinson's disease, pain, asthma, colds, or allergies; muscle relaxants; oral contraceptives; phenytoin (Dilantin); probenecid (Benemid); rifampin (Rifadine); sedatives; sleeping pills; theophylline (Theo-Dur); and tranquilizerss. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
- tell your doctor if you have or have ever had glaucoma or seizures, or lung, heart, or liver disease.
- tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking oxazepam, call your doctor immediately.
talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking oxazepam if you are 65 years of age or older. Older adults should take lower doses of oxazepam because higher doses may not be more effective and are more likely to cause serious side effects.
- if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking oxazepam.
- you should know that Oxazepam may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how Oxazepam affects you.
- talk to your doctor about the safe use of alcohol during your treatment with oxazepam. Alcohol can make the side effects of oxazepam worse.
- tell your doctor if you use tobacco products. Cigarette smoking may decrease the effectiveness of Oxazepam.
What special dietary instructions to follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.
What to do if I forget a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However if it is almost time for your next dose skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What side effects can Oxazepam cause?
Oxazepam may cause side effects. Call your doctor if any of the symptoms are severe or do not go away:
changes in appetite
restlessness or excitement
- changes in sex drive or ability
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
persistent, fine tremor or inability to sit still
difficulty breathing or swallowing
severe skin rash
yellowing of the skin or eyes
Oxazepam may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you experience any unusual problems during your treatment with oxazepam.
What to know about storage and disposal of Oxazepam?
Keep Oxazepam in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
In case of emergency/overdose
In case of overdose, consult your doctor. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, consult local medical emergency services.
What other information to know?
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your response to Oxazepam.
Do not let anyone else use your medication. If you still have symptoms and need further treatment, consult your doctor.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.
Ref: U.S. National Library of Medicine.
This information is provided for reference only and not a replacement for and should only be used in conjunction with full consultation with a registered medical practitioner. It may not contain all the available information you require and cannot substitute professional medical care, nor does it take into account all individual circumstances. Although great effort has been made to ensure content accuracy, mph-bd shall not be held responsible or liable for any claims or damages arising from the use or misuse of the information contained herein, its contents or omissions, or otherwise.