The World Health Organization defines sexual health as a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence1.
Human sexuality is a basic instinct like all other living creatures. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy human relationships. They also contribute to your sense of well-being. A number of disorders can affect the ability to have or enjoy sex in both men and women.
Factors that can influence sexual health include,
|Sexually Transmitted disease (STD)||
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections acquired by sexual contact. You can get an STD by having unprotected sex with a partner who's infected. You can't always tell if someone is infected, however, because many STDs cause no symptoms, at least at first. In fact, a person may have an STD without knowing it.
That's why you have to be vigilant about STD prevention. If you're sexually active, your best bet for STD prevention is to have just one sex partner who doesn't have any STDs and who has sex only with you. If you're not in an exclusive relationship, you can still protect yourself by learning about and consistently practicing STD prevention, such as using condoms.
|Sexual Health - Women||
Women's sexual health is an important aspect of women's health, whether you're trying to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections or you're worried about low sex drive or other women's sexual health problems.
Learn how to achieve a fulfilling sexual relationship, and know how to protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections. As you get older, understand common changes in women's sexual health â€” and how to maintain a healthy and enjoyable sex life at any age.
|Sexual Health - Men||
Men's sexual health is an important aspect of men's health, whether you're trying to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections or you're worried about erectile dysfunction or other men's sexual health problems.
For some men, worries about penis size top the list of their sexual health concerns. However, you're probably more normal than you think â€” and penis-enlargement products and procedures aren't likely to be effective.
As you get older, understand common changes in men's sexual health â€” and how to maintain a healthy and enjoyable sex life at any age.
Healthcare System in Bangladesh
Ministry of Health and Family Planning, GoB controls the health care system in Bangladesh in it’s total geography covering vast rural & urban areas. Back in 80s the rural healthcare facilities comprised sub-district health centers, family welfare centers and rural dispensaries which were poorly administered due to lack of infrastructures as well as ensuring availability of medical professionals. The situations have not changed till date to any significance. However, private/ non-government healthcare organization proliferated significantly over last two decades that largely meet healthcare needs of this 160 mio population country.
However, govt. healthcare support services extends from primary to tertiary level healthcare support system not equally distributed throughout the country. Capital city Dhaka and Port City Chittagong hosts most of the large govt. healthcare institutions. There are 15 Govt. Medical College hospitals (and growing) throughout the country providing quality medical education; some of them (DMC, CMC, RMC etc.) approved by GMC, UK. However, some more new govt. medical college hospital already started Student admission recently. Besides, there are 48 private medical college running in different parts of the country for years, a few of them running for decades. For higher education, govt. approved 2 other Medical University (Chittagong & Rajshahi) apart from BSMMU.
Pharma Market - Bangladesh
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical industry is the most technologically developed manufacturing sector and 3rd largest industry for contribution to government's revenue. This pharma industry contributes approx. 1% of the total GDP of the country. Out of many, about 250 pharmaceutical manufacturers are, although, around 40% companies are in operation and they produce >500 generic drugs. This market is highly concentrated as top 20 companies produce 85% of the revenue.
According to IMS, the retail market size is around BDT 118 billion as on 2014 where as it was around BDT 47 billion in 2008. It should be noted that IMS report points to the retail-level sales of pharmaceutical products not the institutional businesses (government and other organizational purchases) or export numbers.
Local pharmaceutical companies focus primarily on branded generics, mostly using imported APIs (Active Pharmaceuticals Ingredient). Unlike the international market, this generics constitute about 85% of the drugs sold in Bangladesh and 15% are patented drugs. Bangladesh produces as much as around 97% of it’s national consumption and thereby can be said to be self-sufficient in medicine production.
Presently, 15 Bangladeshi companies are involved in API (active pharmaceutical ingredients) production, The proposed API park is under development, in Munshiganj, about 40 kilometres from the capital. This park will accommodate 40 API industries with central effluent treatment plant and incinerator and other modern facilities.
Being LDC, Bangladesh will continue to enjoy patent-free production rights domestically until 2016 and limited exporting advantage. Having said that, as long as Bangladesh has to import APIs however, they will have to buy these from firms which are compliant with TRIPS laws and hence will have to incorporate the higher royalty patent price for these.
TRIPS also allow Bangladesh to export drugs patent free. The advantages that TRIPS does offer is somewhat offset by the pace and aggressiveness of the Indian and Chinese generic market, where companies can produce drugs, even including the patent costs, at an enormously competitive rate. As the days are counting, Bangladesh may export to any country if the drug is not under patent only until 2016. However, Least-developed country (LDC) members of the WTO will be allowed to maintain maximum flexibility in their approach to patenting pharmaceutical products until at least 2033, following a decision taken by the WTO’s Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) on 06 November '15 as published on WTO website.
- Category: Disease and Health Condition